A modified Mediterranean diet against gestational diabetes mellitus
Healthy lifestyle is reported to reduce the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The association between Mediterranean diet (MD) and GDM incidence remains unclear in China. Therefore, we aim to establish a Chinese-habit-based MD recipe and explore its effects on GDM. This study recruited gestational age women who were planning a pregnancy in the near future with at least one risk factor for GDM. The participants were randomly allocated into the control and MD groups. They were required to follow diet interventions at least 6 months prior to pregnancy until delivery. Average dietary intake, glucose and insulin metabolism in 26–28-week of gestation, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed to assess the effects of MD. The clinical outcomes of 580 participants, with 294 in the MD group and 286 in the control group, were analyzed. It was revealed that the MD group had a high intake of protein, vitamins, and dietary fibers, whereas low intake of fat, resulting in improved insulin and glucose metabolism. Meanwhile, women and their newborns in the MD group showed a reduced proportion of complications. The modified MD intervention started before pregnancy shows a preventive effect against GDM and also benefits the mother and their newborns in other outcomes.
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